Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

The immune system is the body's defence against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease.

The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. One of the important cells involved are white blood cells, also called leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances.

It is the defence mechanism by a human body that resist the entry of harmful microorganism to enter the body and even it prevents the growth of the similar microorganism in human body It is the process of detection and elimination of pathogens and harmful microorganism by the human body

Immune system involves cells and organs helps in the detection of self and non-self tissues and cells the immune system has evolved to protect the host from a universe of pathogenic microbes that are themselves constantly evolving. The immune system also helps the host eliminate toxic or allergenic

The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system existence activated by antigens. The immune response can include immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens, allergies, and graft rejections. In this process the main cells involved are T cells and B cells (subtypes of lymphocytes), and macrophages (a type of leucocyte or white blood cell). These cells produce lymphokines that influence the other host cells' activities. B cells mature to produce immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies), that react with antigens. At the similar time, macrophages process the antigens into immunogenic units which stimulate B lymphocytes to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells, stimulating the T cells to release lymphokines

A compliment is a group of normal serum proteins that improve the immune response by fetching activated as the result of antigen-antibody interaction. The first contact with any antigen sensitizes separate affected and promote the primary immune response. Next of the sensitized individuals with the same antigen result in a more rapid and massive reaction, called the secondary immune response ("booster response" or the "anamnestic reaction"). It is most expressed in the level of circulating serum antibodies.

An anamnestic response in medicine is a delayed immunologic response. The term is frequently used in transfusion medicine and refers to a re-exposure incident where the antibody is formed on initial exposure to an antigen in a transfused unit, but the specific memory B cell population fades over time, with antibody becoming undetectable over years. If a patient is re-exposed to the same offending antigen in a future transfusion (which might happen because of the antibody screen

Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful & pathogenic microorganism from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic makeup. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity  Infectious agents are the microbial agents like virus, bacteria, fungi are the responsible for causing infections to the host cells by transmitting from one cell to another they even cause infectious diseases which are transmittable diseases or communicable diseases


An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig) is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mostly by plasma cells that are used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody distinguishes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is exact for one epitope (similarly, analogous to a key) on an antigen, permitting these two structures to bind calm with precision. By means of this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by inhibiting a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.

The process of production and development of vaccines which consist of biological agents which are similar to disease-causing microorganisms in weakened forms it means that the pathogenicity is disintegrated from the microorganism vaccine

 is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine characteristically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, conclusion it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the forthcoming. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or relaxing (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated).

The management of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective technique of preventing infectious diseases widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely accountable for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as poliomeasles, and tetanus from much of the world. The efficiency of vaccination has been extensively studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently existing for twenty-five different preventable infections. 

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that dealings the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution by means of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes). The molecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein, though it may be other kinds of molecules, of different size and types if the proper antibodies that have the adequate properties for the assay are developed. Analytes in biological liquids such as serum or urine are frequently measured using immunoassays for medical and research purposes.

Immunoassays come in numerous different formats and variations. Immunoassays may be run in multiple steps with reagents being added and washed away or separated at different points in the assay. Multi-step assays are often called separation immunoassays or heterogeneous immunoassays. Some immunoassays can be carried out simply by mixing the reagents and sample and making a physical measurement. Such assays are called homogenous immunoassays or less frequently non-separation immunoassays.

The use of a calibrator is often employed in immunoassays. Calibrators are solutions that are known to contain the analyte in question, and the concentration of that analyte is generally known. Comparison of an assay's response to a real sample against the assay's response produced by the calibrators makes it possible to interpret the signal strength in terms of the presence or concentration of an analyte in the sample.


The process by which the immune system of the human body loses its ability to recognise self and non-self-tissues & organs it can be affected to any part of the body 

Autoimmune diseases result from a dysfunction of the immune system. The immune system guards from disease and infection. Sometimes, however, the immune system can produce autoantibodies that attack healthy cells, tissues, and organs. This can principal to autoimmune disease.


Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by persuading, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response “Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response are underground as activation immunotherapies, while immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapies.

In recent years, immunotherapy has become of great interest to researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies, predominantly in its promise to treat various forms of cancer

Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, as well as less potential for creating resistance when treating microbial disease.

Cell-based immunotherapies are actual for some cancers. Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work together to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of tumour cells.

Therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from bacteria are licensed for medical use. various chemokines, synthetic cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides and glucans are involved in clinical and preclinical studies.

Immunogenetics is a subspecialty of medicine that studies the connection between genetics and immunology. Immunogenetics helps in sympathetic to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and infectious diseases.

Autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, stand complex genetic traits which result from defects in the immune system. Identification of genes defining the immune defects may identify new target genes for therapeutic approaches. On the other hand, genetic differences can also benefit to define the immunological pathway principal to disease.

Immunoproteomics becomes a potent methodology used for classifying immunoreactive proteins. In this study, an immunoproteomic method based on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and immunoblotting mutual with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)  used to classify immunoreactive proteins that might be involved in mechanisms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) development, regardless of their possible reciprocal molecular mimicry. Proteins isolated from C. jejune and human peripheral nerve tissue (HPN) were separated with 2D SDS-PAGE and subjected to western blotting using serum samples from GBS patients. The peptides generated after proteolysis of the immunoreactive proteins acquiesced to nanoflow-high performance liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-I-MS and MS/MS) followed by Sequestrated analysis for proteins identification. In  immunoreactivity was found for GroEL and DnaK, structural proteins (MOMP), key enzymatic proteins necessary for the microbial proliferation (adenylate kinase, enolase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and aspartate ammonia-lyase), and antioxidant enzymes (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase–AhpC and DNA protection during starvation protein - DNA protection factor against Fe2+-mediated oxidative stress).

immunotolerance is a state of the insensitivity of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to provoke an immune response in a specified organism. It is brought by prior exposure to that specific antigen then contrasts with the predictable immune-mediated elimination of foreign antigens. Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally persuaded—in the thymus and bone marrow(central) or in other tissues and lymph nodes (peripheral). The mechanisms by which these forms of tolerance are established are distinct, but the subsequent effect is parallel.

Immunopathology is a division of medicine that deals over immune responses related to the disease. It includes the study of the pathology of an organism, organ system, or disease with admiration to the immune system, immunity, and immune responses. In biology, it references to damage caused to an organism by its immune response, because of an infection. It could be due to a mismatch between pathogen and host species, and frequently occurs as soon as an animal pathogen infects a human 

The study of immune dysfunction consequential exposure of an organism to xenobiotics The immune dysfunction might take the form of immunosuppression or on the other hand, allergy, autoimmunity or any number of inflammatory-based diseases or pathologies. Since the immune system plays a dangerous role in host resistance to disease as well as in normal homeostasis of an organism, identification of immunotoxin risk is significant in the protection of human, animal and wildlife health

parasitology traditionally has included the study of three major groups of animals: parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminths (worms), and those arthropods that directly cause disease or performance as vectors of various pathogens. A parasite is a pathogen that concurrently injures and derives sustenance as of its host. Some organisms called parasites are commensals, in that they neither assistance nor harm their host (for example, Entamoeba coli). Granting parasitology had its origins in the zoologic sciences, it is today an interdisciplinary field, greatly influenced by microbiology, immunology, biochemistry, and other life sciences.

Allergies, also recognized as allergic diseases, are a numeral of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to classically harmless substances in the environment These diseases contain hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may embrace red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate circumstances.

 The use of the immune system to treat cancer. Immunotherapies can be categorized as active, passive or hybrid (active and passive). These tactics exploit the fact that cancer cells repeatedly have molecules on their surface that can be noticed by the immune system, identified as tumour-associated antigens they are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g. carbohydrates). Active immunotherapy directs the immune system to attack tumour cells by targeting TAAs. Passive immunotherapies enhance existing anti-tumour responses and comprise the use of monoclonal antibodies, lymphocytes and cytokines.

It is the branch of medicine deals by the transfusion of blood and blood mechanisms and the laboratory tests similar immunohematology, blood donation test transfusion practices, patient blood management therapeutic apheresisstem cell gatherings, cellular therapy, and coagulation. Laboratory management and understanding of state and federal regulations connected to blood products are likewise a large part of the field.

Clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by the disorders in the immune system like immunodeficiency where immune system loses its ability to provide an adequate response to the primary immune diseases, autoimmunity where again immune system fails in recognising self and non-self-cells of the immune system and the other prominent kind of disorder is a hypersensitivity

It comprises of both genomics and bioinformatics approaches towards the immunology where the immunological problems are converted to computational data and they are resolved using mathematical and computational approaches and the result are in the immunologically meaningful interpretation and usage of Models and Tools covers the methodological framework and claim of cutting-edge tools and methods to study immunological processes

under the branch of biomedical, it is the study of disorders in the immune system of animals and it is even linked to the zoology and veterinary science, interested in how the immune system works, in what manner vaccines prevent disease and why vaccines sometimes do not work and cause contrary reactions. Cover both basic and applied features of immunology, this script explores the mechanisms of resistance to infectious disease, vaccines and immunologic diseases of domestic animals.

Ocular Immunology is sympathetic of the immune response to various allergies, inflammation and infections of ocular tissue including retina and uveitis. Ocular Immunology developed highly specialized diagnostic and therapeutic skills in gentle for patients with destructive inflammatory diseases of the eye interceded by abnormal immunoregulatory processes.

Field of medicine which deals with the refers to a field of medicine that studies interactions (or the absence of them) among the immune system and components connected to the reproductive system, such as maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus, or immunological interactions across the blood-testis barrier. The perception has been used by fertility clinics to explain the fertility problems, recurrent miscarriages and pregnancy complications experiential when this state of immunological tolerance is not successfully achieved. Immunological therapy is the new up and coming method for treating numerous cases of previously "mysterious infertility" or recurrent miscarriage.

Pediatric allergists/immunologists treat children from birth through the teenage years. Their high-quality to specialize in pediatric allergy and immunology equips them to deliver the most experience in commerce with the unique medical needs of children who have allergies and immune system complications

Systems immunology is a new research field that, under the greater umbrella of systems biology, aims to study the immune system in the more integrated perspective on how entities and players participate at different system levels to the immune function.

The immune system has been thoroughly analysed about to its components and function by using a very successful "reductionist" approach, but its overall functioning principles cannot easily be forecast by studying the properties of its isolated components because they strongly rely on and arise from the interactions among these numerous constituents. Systems immunology represents a different tactic for the integrated comprehension of the immune system structure and function based on complex systems theory, high-throughput techniques, as well as on mathematical and computational tools.